1. "Synthetic vaccine nanoparticles target to lymph node triggering enhanced innate and adaptive antitumor immunity."
Kim SY, Noh YW, Kang TH, Kim JE, Kim S, Um SH, Oh DB, Park YM, Lim YT.
Biomaterials. 2017 Jun;130:56-66. (SCIE, IF:8.402)
In this study, synthetic vaccine nanoparticles (SVNPs) that efficiently targeted lymph nodes, where immune responses against foreign antigens are primed, were developed to enhance antitumor immunity. The size (20-70 nm) and surface character (amination) of poly(γ-glutamic acid)-based SVNPs were selected for effective loading and delivery (i.e., migration and retention) of model tumor antigen (OVA) and toll-like receptor 3 agonist (poly (I:C)) to immune cells in lymph nodes. Antigen-presenting cells treated with SVNP-OVA and SVNP-IC showed higher uptake of OVA and poly (I:C) and higher secretion of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and type I interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β) than those treated with OVA and poly (I:C) alone. In vivo analysis revealed higher levels of activation markers, inflammatory cytokines, and type I IFNs in the lymph nodes of mice immunized with SVNP-IC compared to those of mice in other groups. SVNP-IC-treated mice showed significantly greater in vivo natural killer cell expansion/activation (NK1.1(+) cells) and CD8(+) T cell response (CD8(+) INF-γ(+) cells) in innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. Both preventive and therapeutic vaccination of EG7-OVA tumor-bearing mice using the simultaneous injection of both SVNP-OVA and SVNP-IC induced higher antitumor immunity and inhibited tumor growth.
2. "Selectively Impaired Endocannabinoid-Dependent Long-Term Depression in the Lateral Habenula in an Animal Model of Depression."
Park H, Rhee J, Lee S, Chung C.
Cell Rep. 2017 Jul 11;20(2):289-296. (SCIE, IF:8.282)
Abnormal potentiation in the lateral habenula (LHb) has been suggested to mediate depression-like behaviors. However, the underlying mechanisms of the synaptic efficacy regulation of LHb synapses and the potential for their modulation are only poorly understood. Here, we report that long-term synaptic depression (LTD) occurs in the LHb upon both low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and moderate-frequency stimulation (MFS). LFS-induced LTD (LFS-LTD) is accompanied by a reduction in presynaptic release probability, which is endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling dependent. Surprisingly, exposure to an acute stressor completely masks the induction of LFS-LTD in the LHb while leaving the MFS-induced LTD intact. Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) or blockade of αCaMKII successfully restored LTD in the LHb in an animal model of depression. Thus, our findings reveal a form of synaptic strength regulation and a stress-induced shift of synaptic plasticity in the LHb.